Keywords for Reference

Below are many of the keywords that need to be understood for use when listening to the music in the exam. Each has a link that will provide a way of understanding it. You could and should do your own research if a link does not help your understanding. Where there is an (ex) and description next to the keyword, this links to a Spotify audio example (you will need a Spotify account though). Click on the (ex) to hear it.

Texture – HomphonicmonophonicpolyphonicMelody and accompaniment.

Melody

intervals within the octave

conjunct

disjunct

triadic

broken chords (ex) The piano lower part is playing broken chords

scalic

arpeggio

passing notes

acciaccaturas

appoggiaturas

blue notes

diatonic

chromatic

pentatonic

whole tone

modal

augmentation

diminution

sequence (ex) Here the main tune is repeated several times at the beginning beginning on different pitches, hence in sequence.

inversion

slide/glissando/portamento

ornamentation

ostinato      riff

phrasing articulation pitch bend improvisation (ex) Here the trumpet improvises later in the piece.

Timbre

instruments and voices singly and in combination as found in music for solo instruments concertos chamber groups pop and vocal music          acapella   String Quartet   Wind Chamber

generic families of instruments as found in world music (don’t look at Celtic or Gamelan on this link)

instrumental techniques including con arco/with a bow pizzicato/plucked con sordino/muted double-stopping tremolo/tremolando

vocal ranges and techniques such as falsetto and vibrato

music of the carribean

African music

Indian music

Music of the 1960’s

R ‘n’ B and Hip Hop

Musical Theatre

Samples, Loops

Watch and hear different instruments of the orchestra here

Dynamics

Rhythm & Metre

pulse

simple & compound time

regular        irregular           free

augmentation             diminution          hemiola           cross-rhythm

dotted rhythms           triplets         syncopation

tempo        rubato  (1 minute in)      polyrhythm         bi-rhythm

diatonic – in a key     chromatic

consonant         dissonant

pedal        drone

cadences: perfect plagal imperfect interrupted

Tièrce de Picardie (bottom of page)

identification of major minor and dominant seventh chords using Roman numerals/chord symbols

Tonality

tonal        major        minor         modal

Texture      harmonic/homophonic             polyphonic/contrapuntal         imitation         unison          octaves         single melody line melody with accompaniment

antiphonal (watch the video and ignore the bloke…)

common signs terms & symbols

key signatures

Structure & Form

binary         ternary            call & response          rondo         theme & variations

sonata        minuet & trio              scherzo & trio

strophic          through-composed              da capo aria

cyclic            popular song forms            ground bass         continuo            cadenza

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